Amedeo Modigliani (1884-1920)
Born in Livorno, Modigliani moved to Paris in 1906 after studying in Florence and Venice. His early work was influenced by Cézanne and the Symbolists, and later the Italian Primitives and African and Oceanic sculpture. From these sources he drew a repertoire of primitive forms, elongated figures and ovoid heads. His stylised stone heads of around 1915 owe much to the work of Brancusi, whom he met in 1909. Aside from his links with Brancusi, however, Modigliani remained detached from European avant-garde movements. He fell out with Picasso and rejected Severini's invitation to join the Futurist movement. Modigliani's work reached its peak shortly before his premature death with a series of nudes that were considered to be scandalously pornographic. He also concentrated on portraiture during these years, but his health rapidly declined as his use of drugs and alcohol escalated.

Amedeo Modigliani, Doctor Francois Brabander, 1918